Heaves and inflammatory airway disease (IAD) are important causes of allergic lower airway disease in horses. Horses with heaves tend to be older and have respiratory difficulty at rest (increased effort and rate of breathing, flaring of the nostrils, coughing, and mucus in the trachea and occasionally in the nostrils). Inflammatory airway disease primarily affects younger horses, such as those in training or recently put into work.
Evaluation of food allergies in horses can be difficult. There are several caveats that horse owners and veterinarians must keep in mind when interpreting results of allergy testing.
Few sights are worse than the tragedy of malnourished or starved horses. It is important to consider that not all underweight horses are the victims of abuse or neglect. Occasionally, horses may have or be recovering from serious conditions (cancer, inflammatory/infiltrative bowel disease, parasitism, colitis, surgery, etc.) that have led to weight loss, and their owners are doing all they can to help the horse regain its previous condition.
Serious kidney (renal) disease in horses is fairly uncommon. Clinical signs of kidney disease can be difficult to differentiate from other conditions but include lethargy, depression, inappetence, ulcers on the mouth or tongue, and edema or swelling of the legs and lower abdomen.
In order for cryotherapy to be effective, it must commence during the developmental stage. This is the time immediately after the horse has been placed at risk of developing laminitis but before signs such as lameness, bounding digital pulse, or hoof heat become apparent.
The horse's endocrine system produces hormones that are distributed throughout the body by the blood. Complex cycles regulate hormone activity, and many hormones affect the actions of others.
California researchers performed a retrospective study on the prevalence of cecal intussusceptions. An intussusception occurs when a segment of intestine pushes into another section of the organ, similar to the way in which a camera lens slides in and out of its casing, and remains fixed.
Most horses affected with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) are overweight and have abnormal fat deposits that include a cresty neck, fat around the tailhead that makes the tail look inset into the body, and fat pads around the shoulder, sheath, or udder.
Nitrate toxicity is uncommon in horses but can be an important problem in ruminants. Horses can be exposed to nitrates by eating fertilizer or toxic forages and drinking contaminated water.
Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) or equine Cushing's disease is caused by an enlargement of the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, resulting in overproduction of the steroid cortisol and loss of the normal feedback mechanisms that affect cortisol production.
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